National Coastal Zone Planning
The PNOOC was prepared at the request of the Angolan government The plan encompasses a 1,650 km long coastal zone, covering an area of 1.8 million hectares. The width of the coastal zone extends 10-20 km from the coastline inland to the east, and 1.5 km into the sea to the west.
The PNOOC proposes development plans for the welfare of Angola’s coastal residents, which constitute half of the country’s population, addressing the scope of supply and demand up to the year 2025.
The PNOOC includes recommendations and development outlines for coastal cities, agriculture, industry, tourism, infrastructure, transportation and ports. Special chapters are devoted to environmental and ecological values and the conservation of natural resources. The PNOOC has been integrated into Angola’s existing planning and legal systems.
The PNOOC was designed in the spirit of sustainable development, taking into account the long term social, economic and environmental consideration, as well as the needs of the general population and the welfare of future generations. This approach, formulated in its day in Agenda 21 and in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.
Planning Angola’s coastal zone (including the coastline and its edges) based on the principles of sustainable development. Development will be judicious and controlled, conserving natural and cultural values for the welfare of the country’s residents in this generation and in future generations.
The development of the coastal zone as a gateway for the development of the country’s interior and the centre of the continent, connecting the coastal region to the interior of the continent.
Levels of Work – National and provincial
The PNOOC operates on two levels:
A. The National Level – The design of the PNOOC was integrative, taking into account the country’s needs in their entirety. The plan views Angola’s coastal zone from an overarching perspective, relating it to the country’s national needs, including its needs at the interior of the continent.
B. The Provincial Level – The PNOOC seeks to respond to needs at the level of the province. The plan assessed the local situation, the local problems and obstacles as well as the existing potential. The national plan analyzed and referred to existing plans with the intention of enhancing their strengths and integrating them.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
The preparation of the PNOOC was accompanied by the creation of a database using a format that can be viewed and edited using GIS tools in an ARCVIEW environment. The database forms the basis for studying the current situation as part of the formulation of the PNOOC, and for monitoring changes.
The database served a central function in the project: bringing together all the collected geographical data, analyzing the existing situation, land use and land calculations, and producing an atlas of maps and drawings which forms a central part of the final report. The Angolan government will be able to make judicious use of this information system in the future for purposes of planning, updating, supervising and monitoring new projects.
Products of the PNOOC
Analyzing existing situation, including a coastal atlas of land use maps.
Demands Report, based on population projections extending to the year 2025, including calculations of the amount of future area required for housing and employment.
Planning outline for urban areas and natural areas, based on the existing situation and expected demands and including various alternatives.
Implementation and Project Proposals Report, which presents a list of projects at the national and provincial level, including a list of implementation priorities and the required budget estimate.
A document of legal instructions, which clarifies the position of the PNOOC in Angola’s planning system and its relationship to other laws, and includes binding instructions with regards to land allocation as it appears in the plan and coastal atlas.
Angola’s Coastal Atlas
Angola’s coastal atlas presents a variety of different issues concerning Angola’s coastal zone and the principal mapping products. The atlas consists of four parts on a 1:100,000 scale The atlas functions as an integral part of the PNOOC, containing in addition valuable geographic, physical and socio-economic material.
A principal theme of global tourism today is becoming acquainted with different cultures and life styles and observing new landscapes. Tourists are interested in seeing and learning about the lifestyles and culture of other people.
The PNOOC establishes a planning framework for conserving and developing historical heritage tourism in Angola, including the development of visitor centres and museums, for example, in historic buildings targeted for renovation. The PNOOC recommends developing tools for organizing and managing visits to prevent overcrowding in sites, as well as tools for preventing damage to sites and their deterioration with the expansion of tourism.
Urban Planning and Natural Areas Planning
The area of the PNOOC includes different and diverse land uses. The space can be divided into two main categories:
Open spaces: Natural spaces, forests, woods, savannas, deserts, sands, lakes, rivers, etc.
Developed areas: Settlements, industry, roads, agriculture, etc.
A specific planning policy was established for each category, in accordance with its character, attributes and the functions it is meant to serve. Developed areas, like cities and industry zones, give rise to socio-economic considerations that are meant to address the needs of existing and future populations.
In open and natural spaces efforts are directed at conserving natural and environmental values and preventing development of sensitive areas.
Ultimately, the two distinct planning categories were united into a harmonious overarching planning framework, whose parts complement each other. A planning policy has therefore been formulated for each of the coastal provinces, addressing its coastal area – both open and developed. The planning policy is grounded in the characteristics of the land, the existing physical conditions and settlement patterns, and in development and conservation proposals and ideas adapted to the particulars of each area.
The plans deal with improving urban structures; simplifying and facilitating orientation within cities; creating centres in the unregulated residential neighbourhoods that would enable their gradual restoration; and with linking the new proposed centres with the historic city centre. The plans aim towards mixed land use development, and the addition of a variety of environmental urban elements that would benefit each other.
General Approach Regarding Luanda
The PNOOC seeks to moderate the existing trend of Luanda’s accelerated growth. At the same time, the PNOOC identifies Luanda as a metropolis with economic power, and a key component of the strategic plan for developing Angola. Consequently, in addition to moderating the city’s rate of demographic growth, the PNOOC will also emphasize the centrality and economic strength of the Luanda Metropolis. These will be expressed in two ways:
• Restricting Luanda’s growth rate and, at the same time, fixing, restoring and creating a functioning urban structure.
• Accelerating the growth of selected cities and creating new cities which will concentrate national and metropolitan functions.